Karl Friedrich von Baden
Charles Frederick, 1st Grand Duke of Baden (German: Karl Friedrich, born 22 November 1728 in Karlsruhe – died 10 June 1811 in Karlsruhe) was Margrave of Baden-Durlach, Elector of Baden and in 1806 the first grand duke of Baden.
Karl Friedrich, who succeeded his grandfather Karl Wilhelm in 1746, found himself only hesitatingly able to maintain the residence in Karlsruhe. He decided that the already ailing wooden castle would be rebuilt out of stone. The citizens should also be allowed to build their houses out of stone in the future - admittedly follwing previously circulated plans. The well-built town, now designed to last, lived to see Karl Friedrich as an example of an enlightened, absolute sovereign, who abolished torture in 1769 and serfdom in 1783. The reputation of Karlsruhe as a Court of muse came about not least because of his wife's (Margravine Caroline Luise, 1723 - 1783) interest in arts and natural sciences. Prominent thinkers, poets and musicians such as Voltaire, Herder, Lavater, Goethe, Klopstock, Gluck and Wieland were among their guests. The “Mahlerey Cabinet” and the margravines specimen cabinet formed the basis of the art gallery and the nature study collections. The still small country, whose existence was threatened by the proximity of the border after the French revolution decided to link its fate to that of France. Baron Sigmund von Reitzenstein, the Baden respresentative in Paris from 1796, had urged his often hesitating margrave towards this policy, and so became the true founder of the state of Baden. Between 1802 and 1806 Baden extended itsely from the Main to Lake Constance increasing its size five-fold, while the population quadrupled to one million. On the 8 May 1803 Karl Friedrich announced his adoption of the rank of Elector of his enlarged country, and on the 13 April 1806 that of Grand Duke of the again extended Grand Duchy of Baden. The small residence of Karlsruhe blossomed in a short time into the capital of a medium sized land. The creation of the modern bureaucratic state apparatus in the capital resulted in population doubling to 15,000 during the years from 1801 to 1815.
- The English Wikipedia about “Karl Friedrich von Baden”